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Exploration of the Status of Services for Immigrant Families in Early Childhood Education Programs

Publication date: 03/2014
Author: Colleen K. Vesely and Mark R. Ginsberg
Series: Research Reports No 13

Immigrants make up at least 15 percent of the population in more than 50 countries. In 2005, “One in every three international migrants lived in Europe and one in every four international migrants lived in North America.”  At age 3 and 4, children in immigrant families were less likely to be enrolled in preschool than their native-born counterparts. The goal of this study was to add to researchers’ and practitioners’ understanding of how early childhood education (ECE) programs are currently working with immigrant children and families. Using qualitative case study methodology, including in-depth interviews with teachers, program staff, and parents as well as field observations in ECE programs in the United States and in Eastern Europe, analyses were conducted with respect to how high-quality programs work with immigrant families. Through qualitative analyses, four principles emerged as particularly important for working with immigrant families: (1) improving quality of and access to ECE programs for immigrant families; (2) building relationships with immigrant parents and families; (3) supporting immigrant parents’ identity development and representation in their communities; and (4) fostering staff dynamics, development, and well-being. Each of these is explored individually in the report, in terms of dynamics as well as recommendations for ECE programs currently working with immigrant families.

Exploration of the Status of Services for Immigrant Families in Early Childhood Education Programs
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Understanding Governance of Early Childhood Development and Education Systems and Services in Low-Income Countries

Publication date: 03/2014
Author: Pia Rebello Britto, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Jan Van Ravens, Liliana A. Ponguta, Soojin S. Oh, Roland Dimaya, Richard C. Seder
Series: Research Reports No 12

This initial exploratory study examines the governance and finance of early childhood services (ECS) in three countries using an in-depth qualitative approach. The methodologies and tools provide an innovative strategy built upon the literature of governance and finance to understand how to improve access, quality and equity of ECS. Cross-country analyses reveal key emerging trends in early childhood development (ECD) systems governance at different levels and around dimensions, including actors, coordination, policy architectures, and local-level perspectives. The findings of this study have implications for strengthening systems of global ECD systems research.  The study employed a mixed-methods phased design (semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, examination of national policy documents) with country-level adaptations. Sampling for the study considered geographic sampling of countries and, within country, regions or provinces that represented advantaged and disadvantaged areas with respect to child well-being and ECS access indicators.

Understanding Governance of Early Childhood Development and Education Systems and Services in Low-Income Countries
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Bridges to Adulthood

Publication date: 03/2014
Author: Manuel Contreras, Brian Heilman, Gary Barker, Ajay Singh, Ravi Verma, Joanna Bloomfield
Series: Research Reports No 11

Great numbers of men report experiencing violence as children and these experiences have significant lifelong effects, according to the new analysis of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) dataset included in this report. Adult men who were victims or witnesses of domestic violence as children, for instance, likely come to accept violence as a conflict-resolving tactic not only in intimate partnerships but also in their wider lives. Experiences of violence as children can also significantly influence how men relate to their partners and children and whether they show more or less gender-equitable attitudes. Men who experience violence as children are also consistently more likely to report low self-esteem and regular experiences of depression. Using IMAGES data from six countries (Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico, and Rwanda), this report explores the prevalence and nature of violence against children as well as its potential lifelong effects. The report expands understanding of these issues by examining data from low- and middle-income countries, by analyzing men’s reports of experiencing and perpetrating violence, and by examining broad categories of lifelong effects.

Bridges to Adulthood
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Demanda social para programas de atención y educación de la primera infancia (AEPI) en el Perú

Publication date: 03/2014
Author: Gabriela Guerrero, Juan León
Series: Research Reports No 3

(NB: In Spanish). This research studied the social demand for early childhood care and education (ECCE) services for children aged under three in two districts in the Puno Region and one district in the Áncash Region of Peru. These districts encompass a mix of urban, rural and indigenous populations. The study finds that, while coverage overall was poor, there was no major difference in income groups; it also finds that explictly educational components of ECCE programmes are especially appreciated. The findings suggest that efforts to scale up ECCE programmes in such areas should be part of an institutional framework familiar to all social stakeholders, and that to ensure sustainability it is crucial to involve local communities.

Demanda social para programas de atención y educación de la primera infancia (AEPI) en el Perú
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Infancia e violencia: Cotidiano de crianças pequenas em favelas do Rio de Janeiro

Publication date: 03/2014
Author: Centro de Análises Econômicas e Sociais, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
Series: Research Reports No 2

(NB: In Portuguese). A multidisciplinary team analysed the experience of hundreds of children aged 0 to 8 with violence at home, in the streets and at school in six favelas of Rio de Janeiro and three communities of Recife. The research involved interviews, questionnaires and group discussions with children, adolescents and adults. Among the results are that community violence is more commonly witnessed in Recife than in Rio, but children’s experience of violence in the home is similar in each city: 73% of mothers in Recife and 71% in Rio report hitting their children. This is the Rio report; the Recife report is available at http://www.pucrs.br/.

By exploring the commonalities and differences in how violence affects children in each community, the research is intended to inform the development of more precise strategies by public, private and nongovernmental organisations.

Infancia e violencia: Cotidiano de crianças pequenas em favelas do Rio de Janeiro
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Children and the Geography of Pain

Publication date: 02/2014
Author: Sheridan Bartlett
Series: Research Reports No 10

Violence is now widely viewed as a public health issue, responsive to treatment and prevention. Understanding the effects of the physical environment on the social environment – the impact of living conditions, neighbourhood space, and territorial boundaries – can shed light on the dynamics underlying children’s experience of violence. The relations of power that govern households and wider society also define where violence occurs. These power relations are often expressed through control over space and the material conditions of life.  The paper focuses on stress, which plays a fundamental mediating role in this relationship. There are direct connections between the accumulation of stressful physical conditions and violence; violence, in turn shapes the material world, diminishing children’s lives and opportunities. Going beyond a narrow social view of violence, the report makes it possible to consider more complex responses that come closer to addressing root causes or shifting the intricate constellation of circumstances in play.

Children and the Geography of Pain
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Economic Costs of Violence against Young Children in Turkey

Publication date: 02/2014
Author: Yeditepe University
Series: Research Reports No 9

This report quantifies and provides a clear picture of violence on young children in Turkey, which include physical damage and injuries, disorders in mental health, loss of self-confidence, loss of skills to adapt to the social environment, and possibility of inflicting violence on others in future. It uses economic data on these consequences to construct a framework to estimate the economic costs of violence against young children in Turkey.  The model finds that in 2011, with an estimated prevalence rate of 34%, the total cost of violence against young children in Turkey is calculated to be between 13.1 billion and 23.7 billion Euros in 2012 values. This corresponds to the cost of medical equipment for more than 3090 hospitals.

Economic Costs of Violence against Young Children in Turkey
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The Impact of Political Violence on Young Children in Israel

Publication date: 02/2014
Author: TAUB Center
Series: Research Reports No 8

This study assesses the impact of exposure to political violence and other traumatic events on young children (aged 2 to 6 years) and their mothers, based on a representative sample of 904 Arab and Jewish mothers in Israel. The study focused on behavioural and developmental problems and symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in young children, and post-traumatic distress and available support and resources for the mothers. Based on recent developments in the field of childhood trauma and the growing interest in identifying maternal protective factors, we utilized innovative measures of maternal emotional regulation to investigate the parental capacity to mitigate distress of young children coping with trauma. Special emphasis is put on the impact of ethnicity (Arab and Jewish), socioeconomic status of the families, religion, and immigration. 

The Impact of Political Violence on Young Children in Israel
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Violence against Male and Female Children aged 8 years and less in Tanzania

Publication date: 02/2014
Author: Gideon Kwesigabo, Joe L.P. Lugalla, David Urassa
Series: Research Reports No 7

This study aims to determine the magnitude and nature of violence against children aged 8 years and less, and the factors associated with it, in three districts of Tanzania. Violence against children is considered under four categories: physical, sexual, emotional and neglect. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted. The quantitative approach involved probability samples of adults and children aged 8 years or less from households randomly selected from the three districts. The qualitative approach involved in-depth interviews or focus group discussions with community adults and others. A total of 1,980 eligible households were sampled. The study revealed that risk factors for physical, emotional, neglect and sexual violence in children aged under eight include cultural, economic, social and gender dynamics. This implies that intervention strategies in the communities should be designed at local level in a participatory manner, while linking with district, regional and national initiatives.

Violence against Male and Female Children aged 8 years and less in Tanzania
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Final Evaluation of the Child Wellbeing Program in North and North Eastern Uganda

Publication date: 02/2014
Author: Eddy Walakira
Series: Research Reports No 6

This report describes the process, findings and recommendations of the final evaluation of the Child Wellbeing Program implemented in North and North Eastern Uganda. The Child Wellbeing Program sought to reduce violence against children and women; improve child health indicators; enhance child stimulation and learning within community-based care spaces; improve the care environment by building capacities of caregivers; and enable access to basic necessities such as water and food. It was implemented in three districts: Kumi, Apac, and Nakapiripirit as a pilot. The evaluation was undertaken by Makerere University (Department of Social Work and Social Administration, Children and Youth Program). It combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. Data was collected through a household survey, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with stakeholders, and a review of program documents.

Final Evaluation of the Child Wellbeing Program in North and North Eastern Uganda
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